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Bring your exceptions under control with @throws

May 12, 2021 · 7 min read

The most common detected bugs [1] by PHPStan are:

  • Calling unknown method on an object
  • Accessing unknown property on an object
  • Passing wrong types of arguments to methods and functions

Static analysers put @param and @return PHPDoc validation on the map, people have been benefiting from those errors being reported for the past 4,5 years, and fixed a lot of typehints in their own and third party codebases on the way.

But one aspect of the PHP language had been flying under the radar this whole time. Exceptions can serve you well, but they can also wreak havoc in your codebase. Similarly to the PHP landscape before static analysis came to it, the flow of exceptions throughout applications is still largely unchecked. Developers forget to handle error states, catch expected exceptions, and that leads to applications crashing in production.

PHPStan can now be used to bring exceptions under control, and in this article I’m gonna describe how. You can take advantage of these features with PHPStan 0.12.87 or later.

Checked vs. unchecked exceptions #

PHPStan draws its inspiration from Java. It divides exceptions into two categories. Checked exceptions are expected to be handled by the code at the call site of a function that throws a checked exception. Examples of such exceptions are:

  • Database record has not been found (there’s a nonexistent ID in the URL) - we’re expected to catch such exception and show a 404 Not Found page
  • Customer cannot buy this product because it’s been sold out - an expected situation, the customer should see an error message while adding the product to their cart
/** @throws ProductVariantNotAvailableForUserException */
public function addVariantToCart(int $userId, int $variantId): void
{
// ...
}

On the other hand, unchecked exceptions are not welcome when they’re thrown, and they’re not supposed to be caught and handled because they present an unrecoverable state of the application. We don’t know how we should continue the execution if an unchecked exception is thrown:

  • A file that’s supposed to always exist was not found
  • Database connection failed
  • TypeError has been thrown by PHP - function expected string but an int was passed into it

It’s better to let them bubble up to the topmost layer of the code, log them, alert the developers, show the user a 500 Internal Server Error, and fix the cause as soon a possible - whether it’s a programming error, or an external service problem.

Unlike Java, PHPStan lets the user decide which exceptions are going to be checked and unchecked. These criteria will be different for a database abstraction library, for a web application, and for the static analyser itself.

All exceptions are checked by default. PHPStan’s configuration allows marking exception classes as unchecked in two different ways:

  • Mark a class and its subclasses as unchecked with exceptions.uncheckedExceptionClasses
  • Mark a specific class name (without the subclasses) using regular exceptions with exceptions.uncheckedExceptionRegexes

The configuration in practice can look like this:

parameters:
exceptions:
uncheckedExceptionRegexes:
- '#^Exception$#' # Mark general Exception as unchecked, subclasses are still checked
- '#^Foo\\Bar\\#' # Mark exceptions from Foo\Bar namespace as unchecked
uncheckedExceptionClasses:
- 'LogicException' # Mark LogicException and child classes as unchecked

Since version 0.12.88 PHPStan also supports marking all exceptions as unchecked by default, and list the criteria for the only checked exception classes:

parameters:
exceptions:
checkedExceptionRegexes:
- '#^Foo\\Bar\\#' # Mark exceptions from Foo\Bar namespace as checked
checkedExceptionClasses:
- 'RuntimeException' # Mark RuntimeException and child classes as checked

Enforce declaring thrown checked exceptions in @throws #

The couple of new rules related to checked exceptions are opt-in because every developer might have different needs.

To have a missing @throws with a checked exception above a function reported, turn it on in your configuration:

parameters:
exceptions:
check:
missingCheckedExceptionInThrows: true

Report extra exceptions in @throws that aren’t actually thrown #

When @throws contains an exception that isn’t thrown in the function body, PHPStan can report it with the following setting:

parameters:
exceptions:
check:
tooWideThrowType: true

Dead catch reporting in bleeding edge #

This rule is actually going to be enabled by default for everyone in the next major version, because I believe it’s useful regardless of anyone’s view of how exceptions should be categorized and handled.

This error will be reported when there’s a catch block for an exception that isn’t thrown in the try block.

Try it today with bleeding edge:

includes:
- vendor/phpstan/phpstan/conf/bleedingEdge.neon

What does absent @throws above a function mean? #

PHPStan needs to be careful with interpreting of the existing code. No tool until now has forced developers to dutifully document their exceptions so absent @throws tag can mean two different things:

  • Function throws some undocumented exceptions
  • Function doesn’t throw any exception

The first option is safer so that’s what PHPStan does by default. In this mode you can write @throws void to mark a function that definitely doesn’t throw an exception.

To flip the switch and always interpret the absent @throws as no exception being thrown, turn implicitThrows off in your configuration:

parameters:
implicitThrows: false

Inline @throws #

Similar to an inline @var tag to override what PHPStan thinks about the type of the assigned variable, you can use an inline @throws tag to persuade PHPStan about what’s being thrown and not thrown in a function body:

/** @throws FooException */
$a = $this->doSomething();

Stub files can also be used to fix @throws PHPDocs in 3rd party code.

Future scope #

There might be more opportunities for more rules to explore in the future. Some ideas that come to mind are:

  • Disallow unchecked exceptions in catch blocks. This might sound useful, but sometimes we want to check an unchecked exception and convert it to a checked exception before re-throwing.
  • Disallow unchecked exceptions in @throws - this is a hard sell, we might want to write them there so that we can get more precise try-catch-finally analysis.
  • Disallow empty catch-all like catch (\Throwable $e) { } - this construct can silence all errors which is rarely desired

I can’t wait for everyone to try out these features and send back some feedback to improve them!


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  1. This is just from my personal experience and anecdotal evidence - PHPStan doesn’t perform any telemetry on user’s code. ↩︎

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